The present contracting parties are Denmark, Estonia, the European Community, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden. At this time the Gulf of Bothnia must have suffered greater depression than the Baltic proper, for the deposits of that epoch show a thickness of 100 metres (328 ft.) near Hernosand, but of only 25 metres (82 ft.) in the neighbourhood of Gotland. This leads to decreased oxygen concentrations within the zone. The Baltic Sea drainage basin is roughly four times the surface area of the sea itself. The canal is intended to provide a shorter route for shipping … The 1974 Convention entered into force on 3 May 1980. Geographers widely agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland.  Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it usually indicate the geographical location of the sea (in Germanic languages), or its size in relation to smaller gulfs (in Old Latvian), or tribes associated with it (in Old Russian the sea was known as the Varanghian Sea). (0.37 ft.), at Travemunde, and 13.9 cm. Beyond the Middelbank the Danziger Tiefe, an isolated depression, lies to the south-east, while to the northeast the Gotland basin, the largest and deepest of all, extends north-eastwards to the Gulf of Finland. The Baltic Sea is connected to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the North Sea’s German Bight via Kiel Canal. The gleaming expanse of ice is similar to the Arctic, with wind-driven pack ice and ridges up to 15 m (49 ft). Kattegat, (Danish: “Cat’s Throat”) Swedish Kattegatt, strait forming part of the connection between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.The strait trends north-south between the Jutland (Jylland) peninsula and Sjælland (Zealand) island of Denmark (west and south) and Sweden (east); it connects through the Skagerrak (north) with the North Sea and through The Sound and the … The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January. 30, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, 418 p. Bogucka, Maria. It is connected with the North Sea by the Øresund (the Sound), the Store Baelt, the Lille Baelt, the Kattegat, and the Skagerrak. Measures are also taken in the whole catchment area of the Baltic Sea to reduce land-based pollution. East of Lubeck, as far as the mouth of the Oder, these give place to Bodden, ramified openings studded with islands: the structure here resembles that of Scania in southern Sweden, a region once joined to both Denmark and Pomerania by an isthmus which was severed by tectonic movements. Baltic is of peculiar interest. The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal.  From 1872, there exist regular and reliable records of water levels in the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea has virtually no tides, with no more than a few centimeters variation. , In contrast, the salinity of the Danish straits, which connect the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, tends to be significantly higher, but with major variations from year to year. Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in the 19th century. In Sweden, the sea was then referred to as Mare Nostrum Balticum ("Our Baltic Sea"). "Structural Change in the Dutch Trade in the Baltic in the Eighteenth Century".  At more than 600 species of invertebrates, fish, aquatic mammals, aquatic birds and macrophytes, the Arkona Basin (roughly between southeast Zealand and Bornholm) is far richer than other more eastern and northern basins in the Baltic Sea, which all have less than 400 species from these groups, with the exception of the Gulf of Finland with more than 750 species. ", "Sturmfluten an der deutschen Ostseeküste", "Hydrogeography and oxygen in the deep basins", "The Baltic Sea: Its Past, Present and Future", "Land Use and Population Density in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin: A GIS Database", "UFO at the Bottom of the Baltic Sea? The remainder of the Sea is brackish, poor in oxygen, and in species. 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